Doesburg, Martinikerk Walcker Organ
The Walcker organ of the Martinikerk in Doesburg, Netherlands
The great four manual organ of Oscar Walcker was built as his opus 1855 for the church Nieuwe Zuiderkerk in Rotterdam in 1914-1916. The construction of the church and the organ was sponsored by brothers Bos who were organists themselves and who had certain predilection for the organbuilding techniques represented by the lastest achievements of German organbuilders. For this reason, the modern organ with an electro-pneumatic action was commissioned to the Walcker and Co. When the church had been demolished in 1968, the organ was sold to the Doesburg parish and transferred to the Martinikerk. This church lost its own organ during the bombardment of the 2nd World War when its spire was destroyed. Although different (neobaroque) organ fashion was governing at that time, the authorities of the church made the fortunate decision to acquire the Walcker organ which is now pride of the town and a true historical monument, because there are only few large Walcker organs preserved without major rebuilding.
The organs of the Walcker company bear many characteristics which we usually call "romantic" today: predominance of 8' stops carefully selected to provide the widest possible differeciation of the sound color as well as smooth dymanic layering, absence of aliquotes, lower number of reeds,use of darker mixtures, the contrast between the division based on dynamics rather than on timbre, tracker allowing comfortable and light touch and virtuoso playing technique, plenitude of couplers and other playing aids.
Nevertheless, the opus 1855 exhibits also the influence of the Alsace organ reform after Emil Rupp. The elements of this sound concept were: more reeds in the French fashion after Cavaillé-Coll, large swell divisions (there are three swell boxes available), brighter mixtures and cornets after Silbermann - the builder proudly engraved the name of the Freiberg master to the largest pipes of the stops made according to the Silbermann scales. An extraordinary feature of the organ which brings the idea of brighter sound color further is the treble rank extensions. Although the compass of manuals is already large - five full octaves, there is a sixth treble octave available for many stops and comes into use when the octave coupler is engaged.
Originally, the organ had an echo division positioned above the vault of the Rotterdam church while the sound was driven through 22 meters long channel into the church nave. This feature was not rebuilt in Doesburg, but the echo division is not lost. It is now seated on top of the organ case in a swell box.
The organ allows historically accurate reproduction of the organ music written during the Romantism and later.
Further reading: Orgelreform in Nederland. Het orgal van de Grote of Martinikerk te Doesburg. Willem Jan Cevaal (ed.), Walburg Pers, 2003. ISBN 90-5730-265-9.
The Hauptwerk version: This organ model requires Hauptwerk v. 4 and higher to be installed and running. Only the advanced version of Hauptwerk is suitable for running this virtual model. The demo version or the basic version are not suitable to run this sample set.
The computer quality: only the most powerful computers will be ready to give enough polyphony for a Tutti or similar full registrations. For the surround variant, a CPU capable of more that 7.000 simultaneous pipes is necessary, for the wet variant of the sample set, a polyphony of more than 5.000 pipes is recommended. The reason is that there are three enclosed divisions (three swell pedals). Enclosed pipes require more CPU strength than an unenclosed pipe. Hence, the Doesburg sample set is more demanding than, for example, the Rotterdam sample set!
The original compass of the manuals is 61 keys, i.e. 5 octaves. Most stops have an internal extension to 73 tones (6 octaves) to be used with the super octave couplers. The same compass is available in the virtual model. The pedal compass is 30 tones, the extended pedal compass of the virtual organ model is 32 tones (C-g1).
The samples are offered in 24bit/48kHz quality, multiple releases (3 levels). Plain wave formant (no encryption). The reverberation time is up to 6 seconds for the ambiental version. The sample set is offered in the surround (four channels) variant, including the wet (stereo) variant.
The organ offers a wide range of dB, from pianissimo to a great fortissimo. The audio level is set as default so as not to overload the soundcard output when reasonable tutti is played. If the volume is turned up considerably beyond the default setting, there could be a danger of blowing the speakers.
Most ranks offer recorded tremmed samples (recorded tremulants). These special tremmed ranks can be identified by the word "tremmed" in the rank description. Load these special ranks together with the normal ranks to get the correct behavior with the tremulant engaged. On the rest of the ranks, the Sonus Paradisi specific dual-channel tremulant waveforms are applied to achieve convincing results (which are hard to obtain with the standard Hauptwerk tremulant model).
Variants of the sample set
- Surround: the surround recording uses 4 independent channels for each virtual pipe (for each sample). The sound of the organ pipes is captured by the front microphones, the church response by the rear microphones. The 4 channels are extracted from the recording and assembled to the sample set. The 2 front channels are used to supply the sound of the organ to the front speakers, while the 2 other channels offer the response of the church. You can use these 2 channels to feed your surround (rear) speakers. Please note, that at least 4 speakers are needed to reproduce the surround sample set variant.
Tip: In the church where the organ was built originally, the IVth manual was an Echo division (Fernwerk). It may be a good idea to swap the front and rear channels for the ranks of the IVth manual so that you get the effect of an Fernwerk.
- CPU: polyphony of 7.000 required, 9.000 or more recommended.
- RAM requirements (full surround, full load using the memory compression, L/R rank components loaded in mono):
** see the blog post for help to achieve these RAM consumption figures **
- 16-bit: 19.9 GB
- 20-bit: 36,6 GB
- 24-bit: 38,3 GB
If you have more RAM available, then please load a portion of ranks without the memory compression. This will reduce the CPU demands and hence your polyphony limit will be higher!
- Wet: For use in headphones or other 2-channels environment: please disable all the ranks marked by the word "rear" in the rank audio output dialog when loading the organ for the first time. By doing this, the rear ranks will be muted and only the two front channels will load. The RAM consumption is reduced to half.
- CPU: polyphony of 4.000 pipes required, 5.000 or more recommended
- RAM requirements (wet only, full load using the memory compression):
- 16-bit: ca. 10 GB
- 20-bit: ca. 20 GB
- 24-bit: ca. 22 GB
|Man. I||Man. II||Man. III||Man. IV||Pedaal||Zwelwerkpedaal|
|Prinzipal 16'||Bourdon 16'||Lieblich-Gedackt 16'||Quintatön 16'||Grand Bourdon 32' (a)||Gedecktbass 16' (f)|
|Gross-Prinzipal 8'||Flöten-Prinzipal 8'||Geigen-Prinzipal 8'||Nachthorn 8'||Prinzipalbass 16'||Echobass 16' (g)|
|Bourdon 8'||Syntematophon 8'||Lieblich-Gedackt 8'||Echo-Bourdon 8'||Subbass 16'||Bourdon doux 8' (h)|
|Viola di Gamba 8'||Doppel-Gedackt 8'||Konzert-Flöte 8'||Echo-Gamba 8'||Harmonikabass 16'||Bassflöte 8' (i)|
|Jubal-Flöte 8'||Flute-harmonique 8'||Quintatön 8'||Vox-Angelika 8'||Contrabass 16' (b)||Violoncello 8' (j)|
|Gemshorn 8'||Salicional 8'||Viola d'amour 8'||Spitz-Flöte 4'||Flötenbass 16'||Bassonbass 16' (k)|
|Dulciana 8'||Cello 8'||Aeoline 8'||Glockenton IV-III||Oktavbass 8'||Clairon harmonique 4' (e)|
|Praestant 4'||Harmonika 8'||Vox-Coelestis 8'||Vox-Humana 8'||Flötenbass 8' (c)|
|Rohr-Flöte 4'||Prinzipal 4'||Liebes-Geige 4'||Echo-Trompete 8'||Choralbass 4'|
|Oktave 2'||Orchesterflöte 4'||Flauto-Dolce 4'||Quintbass 10 2/3'|
|Kornett III-V (Silbermann)||Piccolo 2'||Flautino 2'||Mixtur V (d)|
|Mixtur V (Silbermann)||Kornettino III-IV||Sesquialtera II||Bombardon 32'|
|Trompete 8'||Nasard 2 2/3'||Cymbel III-IV (Silbermann)||Posaune 16'|
|Gross-Mixtur V-VII (Silbermann)||Klarinette 8' (free reeds)||Tuba 8'|
|Trompete harmonique 8'|
|Orchester Oboe 8'|
|Clairon harmonique 4'|
- (a) - acoustique, Contrabass + Quintbass.
- (b) - transmission from Man. I. Prinzipal 16'.
- (c) - transmission from Man. I. Jubalflöte 8'.
- (d) - transmission from Man. I. Mixtur.
- (e) - transmission from Man. II. Clairon harmonique 4'.
- (f) - transmission from Man. III. Lieblich Gedackt 16'.
- (g) - transmission from Man. IV. Quintatön 16'.
- (h) - transmission from Man. IV. Echo Bourdon 8'.
- (i) - transmission from Man. III. Konzertflöte 8'.
- (j) - transmission from Man. II. Cello 8'.
- (k) - transmission from Man. II. Basson 16'.
|II - I
|I - P||II - I||P - I||II - I||II - I|
|III - I||II - P||I - II||P - II||III - I||III - I|
|IV - I||III - P||II - III||P - III||III - II||III - II|
|III - II||IV - P||III - II||P - IV||IV - IV||IV - IV|
|IV - III||IV - III||II - P|
Other playinig aid
Unison off for Man. I
Rücklauf für Crescendo (hardware device to run the Crescendo backwards, omitted)
Couplers off from the Crescendo (one by one)
General Coupler off from the Crescendo
Combinations P., Mf., F., Tutti without mixtures and reeds, Tutti
Automatic Piano Pedal (the user can pre-set different registrations for the pedal. Such a preset is engaged automatically whenever the specified keyboard is touched. Thus, the pedal stops are automatically and quickly changed whenever the user "jumps" with his hands to a different keyboard.)
Handregister off, reeds off, mixtures off, Manuaal 16' stops off, crescendo off.
4 free combinations (omitted since there is large number of free combinations available)
Calcant (no functionality on the original instrument, the sample set uses this switch as a blower switch)
- Manuals: 5 octaves, 61 tones. Most stops have an internal treble extensions (6th octave) for the super-octave couplers (73 pipes in total for each stop).
- Pedal: 30 tones (C - f1). The virtual model extends the compass to 32 keys.
this is the general console view. It serves to define the keyboard MIDI inputs for all the divisions. The only active part of this view are the manuals and the pedal. The crescendo roller and the swell pedals can be set too. Specifying the MIDI inputs is done by right-clicking on the desired manual or pedal. All the other screen components are image-only.
this is the view of the wind ways of the instrument, the base for the Hauptwerk wind model. In the upper part, there are 11 hand pumped wedge bellows, the red indicator shows how full/empty the bellow is, the gauge on the side shows the inner pressure inside the bellows. The switches above each bellow show the operation of the bellows. The upper one served to enable or disable the bellows completely (you can run only several bellows if you wish - attention, the organ can become short of air quickly). The lower two buttons show whether the bellows is inflating (left button) or deflating (right button).
The small "windows" under each set of bellows show how air is going from the bellows to the windchests of the organ. If it is closed, no air is going to windchests, if it is open, air is passing from the bellows to the windchests.
In the lower corner of this view, there are gauges to measure the pressure each of the windchest (some divisions have split windchests).
Finally, in the right bottom of the window, there are two knobs. By turning these knobs you can increase or decrease the noise generated by the blower or by the tracker.
Left+Right Jambs view:
for dual touch screens, split jambs were created. They allow for portrait or landscape orientation, according to the orientation of the touch screens.
Left + Right Jambs Vertical view:
the dual stop jambs offer vertical (portrait) orientation as an alternative.
for a single touch screen, this is the stop jamb to be used. All the stops of the organ can be found there. This view allows for landscape and wide landscape orientantion, according to the size of the touchscreen used. Please note, that the foot levers found on the original organ were not reproduced, since they only duplicate hand drawstops which are available. All features of the organ can be controlled by the drawstops, hence the foot levers were omitted. You may, however, attach your MIDI foot pistons to any drawstop to imitate the behavior of the original organ. The attaching of the physical piston to a button on screen is done by right-clicking on the button. You may attach more than one MIDI physical switch to any of the drawstops on the screen.
Note to the right click: The Single jamb, the Split Jambs and the Simple jamb, all allow for right-click to attach a specific MIDI hardware button to any of the software switch. This is done so that several different MIDI hardware buttons can operate one single software switch, so that the user can operate one stop or one and the same coupler with more than one hardware pistons.
Single Jamb - wide screen variant.
this is the dedicated Sonus Paradisi easy voicing tab. Here you can alter the timbre (volume and color) of each of the stops to suit your liking.
this is the detuning tab. You can alter the pitch of entire rank by turning the knob. This is allowed for each stop of the organ. You may thus make a celeste stop out of any stop of the organ (including creating an undulating trumpet - well, not very useful). By changing the pitch only very little you may, however, achieve some pitch strechting of the organ, and the overall sound may become more lively. The stops which are transmissions have the turning knob dead (seamingly set to the value of -36). The tuning for the borrowed rank is done in its parent stop.
simplified version of a single jamb to allow for more readable version of the stop names on small LCD touch screens.
Simple Jamb - portrait alternative.
Automatic Piano Pedal
For each manual, specific combination of Pedal stops can be prepared. When hands play on any specific manual, the corresponding combination of Pedal stops is engaged automatically. In this way, different pedal registrations can be used to accompany each of the manuals. If two manuals are being played exactly simultaneously, the higher manual has precedence for the piano pedal.
For each crescendo state (1-64), the state of any stop can be set in the three last screens of the ODF layout. Each coupler can be disengaged from the crescendo temporarily using the corresponding "Auslöser der Coppl. aus Crescendo" button.
Doesburg, surround, update v. 1.11 - touch up voicing changes to several pipes of the Orchestral Oboe and Trompete harmonique of the 2nd manual, pitch information corrected for the tremmed samples of the Syntematophon.
Known issues and enhancement requests
It can be useful to make one of the continuous controllers (swell pedals) "floating", i.e. freely assignable to act as a crescendo or swell pedal. This is convenient for consoles where there are not enough physical MIDI continuous controllers.